have/ has + V3
Use of Present Perfect
To express an action or state that occurred in the past but relates or is relevant to the present. It doesn’t matter when it occurred.
- puts emphasis on the result, achievement, or the experience
She has written five letters; Today, a film first appears at the cinema. After people have seen it, a video is produced.
- unfinished actions or states: actions or states that began in the past and continue in the present.
School has not started yet; I’ve been at this school since 1996/ since I was a child; He hasn’t written to us lately; I have lived here for 20 years.
- action that happened recently
She has cooked dinner; I have spoken to him this week; The company has received many complaints recently.
- finished action that has an influence on the present
I have lost my wallet. He has broken his leg (I can see the plaster).
- action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
Have you ever been to Australia? I have never been to Australia. This is the first time he has (ever) been to Paris; This library book has been taken out many times.
- to present news, or make announcements, but if we continue to discuss the issue we usually change to the past simple.
The criminals have been caught by the police; The UN Has Declared a Global State of Emergency.
Signal Words of Present Perfect
- yet, already, so far, till now, twice, several times, ever, never, just, recently, lately, since, for.