Present Perfect Simple

Form

have/ has + V3

Use of Present Perfect

To express an action or state that occurred in the past but relates or is relevant to the present. It doesn’t matter when it occurred.

  • puts emphasis on the result, achievement, or the experience

    She has written five letters; Today, a film first appears at the cinema. After people have seen it, a video is produced.

  • unfinished actions or states: actions or states that began in the past and continue in the present.

    School has not started yet; I’ve been at this school since 1996/ since I was a child;  He hasn’t written to us lately; I have lived here for 20 years.

  • action that happened recently

    She has cooked dinner; I have spoken to him this week; The company has received many complaints recently.

  • finished action that has an influence on the present

    I have lost my wallet. He has broken his leg (I can see the plaster). 

  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

    Have you ever been to Australia? I have never been to Australia. This is the first time he has (ever) been to Paris; This library book has been taken out many times.

  • to present news, or make announcements, but if we continue to discuss the issue we usually change to the past simple.

    The criminals have been caught by the police; The UN Has Declared a Global State of Emergency. 

Signal Words of Present Perfect

  • yet, already, so far, till now, twice, several times, ever, never, just, recently, lately, since, for.

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