• Some connectors are followed by a NOUN PHRASE 
  • Some connectors are followed by a SENTENCE

When the connector ends with a preposition, like of/ to/ as/ from/ for, it is followed by a NOUN PHRASE. The connectors despite and besides are also followed by a NOUN PHRASE. 

When the connector ends with that or has no preposition, it is followed by a SENTENCE. In some of these a comma is used after the preposition. 

In order to is followed by V1.

Practice the connectors on Quizlet

Look at the following CONNECTORS

Connectors which begin a sentence are marked with a capital letter.


*Use a comma after:

Moreover; Furthermore; In addition ;Besides; above all; again; also;

In addition to/ Besides/ as well as+ a noun phrase

* Use at the end of the sentence:

too, as well

* both…and; not only…but (also) 

Concession– words that precede a contrast or surprise:

although; though; (albeit); even though (more powerful) / in spite of the fact that+ sentence (subject+ verb)

Although the weather was cold, she didn’t take a coat. 

despite/ in spite of + a noun  phrase (also in gerund form/ pronoun)

She objected to the plans, but they went ahead in spite of her/ that. 

When the above connectors begin the sentence, a comma is used to separate the two contrasting ideas.

however*; Nevertheless; In spite of that; (a comma after)

still; yet (subject+ still); but; notwithstanding; …, all the same,…

He was very rude to us, yet we (still) forgave him. 


He promised to come on time. However, he didn’t keep his promise.

He promised to come on time. When I met him the next day, however, he didn’t keep his promise.

He promised to come on time. He didn’t keep his promise, however.


by contrast; in comparison; instead; On the contrary (, after); as opposed to; On the one hand,…On the other (hand);

In contrast to/ Contrary to+ noun phrase (including a gerund or pronoun) (the two ideas are separated by a comma)

whereas/ while+ sentence (the two ideas are separated by a comma)

Objectiveexplaining, instructing:

in order to/ so as to/ to + base form

in order that; so that +sentence with a modal

In spoken English that  is often omitted from the phrase so that:

I turned on the light so I could see more easily. 

Reasonexplaining and argumentation:

Use a comma after the first clause only when these words appear at the beginning of the sentence:

as/ because/ since/ seeing that (+ a sentence)

Same as above:

because of/ due to/ owing to/ on account of (+ a noun phrase)


for; in case; just in case; on account of; for the reason that; then

Result (of what was said before):

If they appear at the beginning of the sentence use a comma after them:

therefore (can appear in the middle without a comma); as a result; consequently; so;

so that; thus (very formal); hence; accordingly; for this reason

as a result of+ noun phrase

Expressing an attitude

At the beginning with a comma after/ in the middle between two commas:

fortunately; luckily; unfortunately; in fact;

Expressing a choice:

either ..or; neither… nor


At the beginning with a comma after/ in the middle between two commas:

for example; for instance; such as; including

Sequencing and showing a connection:

All these expressions begin a sentence and are followed by a comma.

First of all/ To begin with/ Firstly/ First

Second/ Secondly/ Then; The next stage

Finally/ In short/ To sum up/ In conclusion/ Lastly/ Last but not least

Regarding/ With reference to/ As to + noun phrases.


apart from; except (for); besides;

Other connectors:

as…as; whether… or; too…to; so…that; so that…;

either/ neither/ so

In these expressions the helping verb agrees with the one in the sentence

to express agreement with negative statements:

Iris hasn’t done her work. I haven’t either/ neither have I/ nor has Anna

agreement with a positive statement:

Helen can read French and so can I; Sandra plays the piano and so do I.


You can either take a bus or a taxi.

to link two negative ideas together:

I neither read nor speak Chinese.

You can neither visit him at home nor can you get an appointment at his office.

Neither David nor Evan has a book.


Exercise 1




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